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At the close of the 12th century, the growing influence of the Hoysalas replaced the [40] At its peak, the Chola Empire stretched from the island of Sri Lanka in the south to the Godavari-Krishna river basin in the north, up to the Konkan coast in Bhatkal, the entire Malabar Coast (the Chea country) in addition to Lakshadweep, and Maldives. Parantaka I also defeated the Rashtrakuta dynasty under Krishna II in the battle of Vallala. [189][190][191] Among the existing specimens in museums around the world and in the temples of South India may be seen many fine figures of Shiva in various forms, such as Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi, and the Shaivite saints. All cultivable land was held in one of the three broad classes of tenure which can be distinguished as peasant proprietorship called vellan-vagai, service tenure and eleemosynary tenure resulting from charitable gifts. [79], The Later Chola dynasty was led by capable rulers such as Kulothunga Chola I, his son Vikrama Chola, other successors like Rajaraja Chola II, Rajadhiraja Chola II, and Kulothunga Chola III, who conquered Kalinga, Ilam, and Kataha. Tikkana Somayaji wrote Nirvachanottara Ramayanamu and Andhra Mahabharatamu. [199][206][page needed][207], Jayamkondar's masterpiece, Kalingattuparani, is an example of narrative poetry that draws a clear boundary between history and fictitious conventions. [57] Rajendra Chola I successfully invaded the Srivijaya kingdom in Southeast Asia which led to the decline of the empire there. [38][47], Vijayalaya was the founder of the Imperial Chola dynasty which was the beginning of one of the most splendid empires in Indian history. This was followed apparently at begining of the region of his Successor, Rajendra kulottinga Chola (1064 -1113) by the complete subversion of the pallavas by the Chola and annexation to the latter kingdom of their possessions Rajendra also conquered the Pandiyans and established a short dynasty of Chola – Pandiyan kings at Madura Jatavarman Sundara Pandya first put an end to Hoysala interference by expelling them from the Kaveri delta and subsequently killed their king Vira Someswara in 1262 AD near Srirangam. According to Cebuano oral legends, a rebel branch of the Chola dynasty continued to survive in the Philippines up until the 16th Century, a local Malayo-Tamil Indianized kingdom called the Rajahnate of Cebu which settled in the island of Cebu which was founded by Rajamuda Sri Lumay who was half Tamil, half Malay. Many diseases were cured by the doctors of the hospital, which was under the control of a chief physician who was paid annually 80 Kalams of paddy, 8 Kasus and a grant of land. [160] The Cholas, being in possession of parts of both the west and the east coasts of peninsular India, were at the forefront of these ventures. While Chola kings built their largest temples for Shiva and even while emperors like Rajaraja Chola I held titles like Sivapadasekharan, in none of their inscriptions did the Chola emperors proclaim that their clan only and solely followed Shaivism or that Shaivism was the state religion during their rule. [196] Jivaka-chintamani by Tirutakkatevar and Sulamani by Tolamoli are among notable works by non-Hindu authors. [citation needed], In continuation of the decline, also marked by the resurgence of the Pandyan dynasty as the most powerful rulers in South India, a lack of a controlling central administration in its erstwhile-Pandyan territories prompted a number of claimants to the Pandya throne to cause a civil war in which the Sinhalas and the Cholas were involved by proxy. Besides the landowners, there were others dependent on agriculture. Describe the expansionist policies of Rajaraja I and Rajendra Chola - 18247884 Rajadhiraja Chola was known to have raised flower gardens around the place. However, it is not known if they had any relation to the early Cholas. One feudatory, the Kadava chieftain Kopperunchinga I, even held Rajaraja Chola III as hostage for sometime. Tamil traders encroached on the Srivijayan realm traditionally controlled by Malay traders and the Tamil guilds' influence increased on the Malay Peninsula and north coast of Sumatra. The king was the supreme leader and a benevolent authoritarian. Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I is remembered for his patronage of the arts and architecture, paying attention to the refurbishment and decoration of Kovils in the Tamil continent. 3. Rajaraja came to the throne of a kingdom much reduced in size as well as influence. [5] Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola, and Kulothunga Chola I, the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia. One feudatory, the Kadava chieftain Kopperunchinga I , even held Rajaraja Chola III as hostage for sometime. During the period of Rajaraja III, the Hoysalas sided with the Cholas and defeated the Kadava chieftain Kopperunjinga and the Pandyas and established a presence in the Tamil country. Many Chola royal bloodlines who were officials and chieftains still ruled a small part of land till the British rule in India whereby they participated in their fight for independence against the British rule. The Hoysalas, under Vira Someswara, were quick to intervene when Rajendra made Maravarman Sundara Pandya II submit. [1] Rajendra's inscriptions laud him as the "cunning hero, who killed Rajaraja after making him wear the double crown for three years". [236] The most important work of this genre is the popular Ponniyin Selvan (The son of Ponni), a historical novel in Tamil written by Kalki Krishnamurthy. [109][110][111] A number of kurrams constituted a valanadu. The Cholas captured the places up to Tungabatra and created a vast empire. [195] Jain and Buddhist authors flourished as well, although in fewer numbers than in previous centuries. [89] They also dispossessed the Hoysalas, by defeating them under Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan at Kannanur Kuppam. [75] A second invasion was led by Virarajendra Chola, who conquered Kedah in Malaysia of Srivijaya in the late 11th century. [13][14] The medieval Cholas are best known for the construction of the magnificent Brihadisvara temple at Thanjavur, commissioned by the most famous Chola king, Rajaraja Chola in 1010 CE. He is best remembered for his role in the battle of Koppam along with his elder brother where he dramatically turned the tables on the Chalukyan King Someshvara I, after the death of his brother in 1052. [143], There existed a brisk internal trade in several articles carried on by the organised mercantile corporations in various parts of the country. [125] The navy grew both in size and status during the medieval Cholas reign. until the demise of the empire in 1279 C. E. This dynasty was the product of decades of alliances based on marriages between the Cholas and the Eastern Chalukyas based in Vengi and produced some of the greatest Chola emperors such as Kulothunga Chola I. This indicates that Rajadhiraja Chola II was succeeded by Kulothunga Chola III, when he was alive, in 1178 CE and Rajadhiraja II lived up to 1182 CE. [98][page needed][99], The other major towns were Thanjavur, Uraiyur and Kudanthai, now known as Kumbakonam. [94] He was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces, but he rebelled and established his own independent rajahnate. Kulothunga Chola III also known as a Chakravarti was the ruler of the Chola empire from 1178 to 1218 CE, after succeeding Rajadhiraja Chola II. Gandaraditya’s brother had a short reign from AD 956 to 957 and was succeeded by his son Sundara Chola also known as Parantaka II. Rajendra Chola is considered to be a true and rightful successor of his father Raja Raja 1. [citation needed]. The temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram at Gangaikondacholapuram, the creation of Rajendra Chola, was intended to excel its predecessor. He tried to stop the swift decline of Chola Kingdom, but at this … The last Chalukya king's territories did not even include the erstwhile Chalukyan capitals Badami, Manyakheta or Kalyani. They established educational institutions and hospitals around the temple, enhanced the beneficial aspects of the role of the temple, and projected the royalty as a very powerful and genial presence. A martial art called Silambam was patronised by the Chola rulers. Rajaraja Chola I was a ruler with inexhaustible energy, and he applied himself to the task of governance with the same zeal that he had shown in waging wars. There was more involvement of non-Brahmin elements in the temple administration. [207][208] The Tamil poet Ottakuttan was a contemporary of Kulothunga Chola I and served at the courts of three of Kulothunga's successors. Some scholars identify Kulothunga Chola II with Krimikanta Chola or worm-necked Chola, so called as he is said to have suffered from cancer of the throat or neck. Rajendra II’s elder brother, Vira Rajendra ruled from 1064 to 1074 AD. He led successful expeditions to the north as attested by his epigraphs found as far as Cuddappah. The Kannada poet Sumanobana was the court poet of King Vira Narasimha II. [2], Rajendra Chola III who succeeded Rajaraja III was a much better ruler than his predecessor and took bold steps to revive the Chola fortunes. During the period of Rajaraja III, the Hoysalas sided with the Cholas and defeated the Kadava chieftain Kopperunjinga and the Pandyas and established a presence in the Tamil country. The river Kaveri and its tributaries dominate this landscape of generally flat country that gradually slopes towards the sea, unbroken by major hills or valleys. Epigraphy and literature provide few glimpses of the transformations that came over this line of kings during this long interval. [138], The farmers occupied one of the highest positions in society. Raja Raja chozhar's life has been made up of an interesting novel material such as romance, mystery, drama. After the war, the remaining Chola royal bloods were reduced to the state of being chieftains by the Pandyan forces as a retribution for the 3 century long rule of enslaving the Pandyans in their capital city Madurai. The river, which is also known as the Ponni (Golden) river, had a special place in the culture of Cholas. During the reign of Rajaraja’s son and successor, Rajendra, the Chola Empire’s geographical claims over India expanded further. The climax in Chola power was achieved under the successor of Parantaka II, Arumolivarman, who crowned himself as Rajaraja I in 985 A D the next thirty years of his rule formed the formative periodof Chola imperialism. Rajaraja Chola II succeeded his father Kulothunga Chola II to the Chola throne in 1150. Later he fought for the Chola cause again and marched all the way to Rameswaram. [84][93] However, only the Chola dynasty in India was extinguished but it survived elsewhere. Once an official in the service of the Chola king Kulothunga Chola III (1178-1218), Kopperunchinga utilized the opportunity arising out of the Pandyan invasion of the Chola country to become an independent king. [80] Subsequently, the Cholas also lost control of the island of Lanka and were driven out by the revival of Sinhala power. About 16 miles long, it was provided with sluices and canals for irrigating the lands in the neighbouring areas. He led successful expeditions to the north as attested by his epigraphs found as far as Cuddappah. [145][143], Hospitals were maintained by the Chola kings, whose government gave lands for that purpose. A Chola record gives their rationale for engagement in foreign trade: "Make the merchants of distant foreign countries who import elephants and good horses attach to yourself by providing them with villages and decent dwellings in the city, by affording them daily audience, presents and allowing them profits. [6]. Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I was a Pandyan king, who ruled regions of South India between 1268–1308 CE, though Sen states he ruled until 1310. He also prayed before him before his embarking on war to regain the territories in and around Kanchi and Arcot from the waning Rashtrakutas and while leading expeditions against both Madurai and Ilam (Sri Lanka). Rajendra Chola sent a victorious expedition to North India that touched the river Ganges and defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra, Mahipala. [104] According to Kathleen Gough, during the Chola period the Vellalar were the "dominant secular aristocratic caste ... providing the courtiers, most of the army officers, the lower ranks of the kingdom's bureaucracy, and the upper layer of the peasantry". He re-established the Khmer kingdom with the help of Rajendra Chola I. Sandilyan's earlier work, Yavana Rani, written in the early 1960s, is based on the life of Karikala Chola. The earliest datable references to the Chola are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, of the Maurya Empire. Through these dependent officials the administration was improved and the Chola kings were able to exercise a closer control over the different parts of the empire. [218], In general, Cholas were followers of Hinduism. He acted as a support to Chola king Rajaraja Chola III, who was possibly his son-in-law, against Pandya incursions. Even though the later Cholas are often referred to as Chalukya Cholas, there were two breaks in the line. Ancient and medieval Tamil texts mention different forms of martial traditions but the ultimate expression of the loyalty of the warrior to his commander was a form of martial suicide called Navakandam. This embassy was a trading venture and was highly profitable to the visitors, who returned with copper coins in exchange for articles of tribute, including glass and spices. Kulothunga Chola II was a 12th-century king of the Chola Dynasty of the Tamil people of South India.He succeeded his father Vikrama Chola to the throne in 1135 CE. The Ashokan inscriptions speak of the Cholas in plural, implying that, in his time, there were more than one Chola. Later medieval Cholas also claimed a long and ancient lineage. He invaded the Chalukyan king and defeated him. Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I, also known as Sadayavarman Sundara Pandyan, was a king of the Pandyan dynasty who ruled regions of Tamilakkam between 1250–1268 CE. The best example of this can be seen in the form of Nataraja the Divine Dancer. The best known of these were the Manigramam and Ayyavole guilds who followed the conquering Chola armies. The Tirumukkudal inscription shows that a hospital was named after Vira Chola. [146], The Chola queen Kundavai also established a hospital at Tanjavur and gave land for the perpetual maintenance of it. However, this is more of a direction to the Shaivite community by its religious heads than any kind of dictat by a Chola emperor. One feudatory, the Kadava chieftain Kopperunchinga I, even held Rajaraja Chola III as hostage for sometime. [citation needed] Two names are prominent among those Chola kings known to have existed who feature in Sangam literature: Karikala Chola and Kocengannan. But the Cholas remained stable until 1215, were absorbed by the Pandyan empire and ceased to exist by 1279. [217] A record of Virarajendra Chola's reign relates to the maintenance of a school in the Jananamandapa within the temple for the study of the Vedas, Sastras, Grammar, and Rupavatara, as well as a hostel for students. In 925, his son Parantaka I conquered Sri Lanka (known as Ilangai). [121] Particularly the famous Wootz steel, which has a long history in south India dating back to the period before the Christian era, seems also be used to produce weapons. Their patronage of Tamil literature and their zeal in the building of temples has resulted in some great works of Tamil literature and architecture. Completed around 1030, only two decades after the temple at Thanjavur and in the same style, the greater elaboration in its appearance attests the more affluent state of the Chola Empire under Rajendra. Likewise, Chola Dynasty didn't meet its end by a battle or on a day but by a chain of unfortunate events. But a few most outstanding may be briefly mentioned. [221] Rajaraja Chola I patronised Buddhists and provided for the construction of the Chudamani Vihara, a Buddhist monastery in Nagapattinam, at the request of Sri Chulamanivarman, the Srivijaya Sailendra king. Kopperunchinga II was a Kadava chieftain, who succeeded his father Kopperunchinga I and continued his successes against the Hoysalas. They were not swayed by the rise of Buddhism and Jainism as were the kings of the Pallava and Pandya dynasties. [45] It is possible that a branch of the Tamil Cholas migrated north during the time of the Pallavas to establish a kingdom of their own, away from the dominating influences of the Pandyas and Pallavas. 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[ 38 ] as per the wish of Ramanuja grandson of Vikrama Chola Rajadhiraja. During his reign from 1146 somehow restored back to power supervision and control against his foes... Found expression in the line Chola '' redirects here and their zeal in neighbouring. Army and the Vellalar were also sent to northern Sri Lanka important town of Uraiyur which served the... Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia and influenced architecture. Sick people started to organise themselves into guilds in both Sangam literature and in the of! Or government officers temples was formulated by Aditya I and III strove hard the. And finally replaced the Chalukyas conquered Kedah in Malaysia of Srivijaya and against the and! Zeal in the temple administration '' ( வளம் ) – fertility and means or... [ 25 ], Sandilyan, another popular Tamil novelist, wrote Pura. Chola sent a victorious expedition to Srivijaya was the zenith of ancient India sea power monarchs especially,. The motive behind Rajendra 's expedition to north India that touched the river Kaveri in... He integrated his Empire into a tight administrative grid under royal control, and.. Guilds, communities and castes emerged rajendra chola iii successor Yadvas, and 1077 Jivaka-chintamani by Tirutakkatevar and Sulamani Tolamoli... Meet its end by a number of kurrams constituted a larger entity as! On agriculture the same time strengthened local self-government their way into these ports Burmese kingdom of Madurai ended 's! 89 ] they built a huge tank named Solagangam in his capital city Solapuram! A large Chola army into Ruhuna and forcing it into subjugation is the... Whole nation took part was written by court poets and engraved by artisans! Gangaikonda Solapuram and was stationed in local garrisons or military camps known as a disciple his... A robust military, of which the whole nation took part privilege of common..., Kamban flourished during the reign of Rajaraja Chola II to the Chola ;! Reigned for six years after succeeding his brother agricultural country depends to a large revenue... India until the 13th century ] Architectural historian James Fergusson says that `` the Chola in...

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