The Olympic Stadium in Ciudad Universitaria is home to the football club giants Universidad Nacional, with a seating capacity of over 52,000. That year, the presidency was set between the P.R.I. This area was then separated from the State of Mexico, forcing that state's government to move from the Palace of the Inquisition (now Museum of Mexican Medicine) in the city to Texcoco. Fact: Mexico, is a land of ancient civilizations, diverse ethnicities, incredible landscapes, tasty food, and a vibrant culture.It is a beautiful country with colorful traditions that is just waiting to be explored. 26.Â The oldest street in America is located in Mexico City, and it was built around 1377 to 1389 by an Aztec emperor. Up to the 1990s, the Federal District was the most populous federal entity in Mexico, but since then, its population has remained stable at around 8.7 million. Large pumps are used to pump out the water and keep the city afloat. He resigned in 1999 to run for the presidency. North of the Historic Center, Azcapotzalco and Gustavo A. Madero have important industrial centers and neighborhoods that range from established middle-class colonias such as Claveria and Lindavista to huge low-income housing areas that share hillsides with adjacent municipalities in the State of Mexico. The city is colloquially known as Chilangolandia after the locals' nickname chilangos. Do you have an idea for an article about travelling Mexico? Many of Mexico City's major attractions and landmarks were built during this era in this style. Huerta had abandoned the capital and the conquering armies marched in. A second level (where tolls are charged) of the Periférico, colloquially called the segundo piso ("second floor"), was officially opened in 2012, with sections still being completed.  The city's initiative is inspired by forward thinking examples, such as Denmark's Copenhagenization. The SSP is charged with maintaining public order and safety in the heart of Mexico City. In the Plaza de las Tres Culturas is the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco that is recognized for being the first and oldest European school of higher learning in the Americas and the first major school of interpreters and translators in the New World.. It was founded in 1521 by Hernán Cortés. , The region of the Valley of Mexico receives anti-cyclonic systems. Other guests are the golden eagle, pronghorn, bighorn sheep, caracara, zebras, African elephant, macaw, hippo, among others. Originally the monument was to be the main dome of Diaz's new senate hall, but when the revolution erupted only the dome of the senate hall and its supporting pillars were completed, this was subsequently seen as a symbol by many Mexicans that the Porfirian era was over once and for all and as such, it was turned into a monument to victory over Diaz. OFFICIAL NAME: United Mexican States FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Republic of federated states CAPITAL: Mexico City POPULATION: 120,286,655 OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: Spanish MONEY: Peso AREA: 1,964,375 square kilometers MAJOR MOUNTAIN RANGES: Sierra Madre MAJOR RIVERS: Rio Grande, Yaqui FLAG:. , The Grito de Dolores ("Cry of Dolores"), also known as El Grito de la Independencia ("Cry of Independence"), marked the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence.  Residents of Mexico City are more recently called defeños (deriving from the postal abbreviation of the Federal District in Spanish: D.F., which is read "De-Efe"). Mexico City is also home to large communities of expatriates and immigrants from the rest of North America (U.S. and Canada), from South America (mainly from Argentina and Colombia, but also from Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Venezuela), from Central America and the Caribbean (mainly from Cuba, Guatemala, El Salvador, Haiti and Honduras); from Europe (mainly from Spain, Germany and Switzerland, but also from Czech Republic, Hungary, France, Italy, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Romania), from the Middle East (mainly from Egypt, Lebanon and Syria); and recently from Asia-Pacific (mainly from China, Japan, Pakistan, India and South Korea). Milpa Alta (pop. These dikes were destroyed during the siege of Tenochtitlan, and during colonial times the Spanish regularly drained the lake to prevent floods.  The national public healthcare institution for private-sector employees, IMSS, has its largest facilities in Mexico City—including the National Medical Center and the La Raza Medical Center—and has an annual budget of over 6 billion pesos. The Historic Center of Mexico City is widely known for specialized, often low-cost retailers. Designed by the most prestigious architects of the era, including Mario Pani, Eugenio Peschard, and Enrique del Moral, the buildings feature murals by artists Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and José Chávez Morado.  At intervals Zócalo was where major celebrations took place as well as executions. National Geographic’s latest travel stories about Mexico City. José Luis Cuevas opted for a modernist style in contrast to the muralist movement associated with social politics. As authorities struggled to tax local taquerias, imposing licensing requirements and penalties, they recorded some details of the types of foods being served by these establishments. The annual average temperature is 64 degrees F (18 degrees C). Chapultepec, the city's most iconic public park, has history back to the Aztec emperors who used the area as a retreat. The two main candidates to become the capit… Mexico City is the greatest contributor to the country's industrial GDP (15.8%) and also the greatest contributor to the country's GDP in the service sector (25.3%).  Tenochtitlan was renamed "Mexico" because the Spanish found the word easier to pronounce.. XHCDM 21, Spanish conquistadors founded Mexico City in 1521 atop the razed island-capital of Tenochtitlán, the cultural and political centre of the Aztec (Mexica) empire. The official name of the country is the United Mexican States. By contrast, corporate office buildings set their base in the city.  The Universidad Tecnológica de México is also in Mexico City. This article is about the capital of Mexico. Today, this avenue is an important financial district in which the Mexican Stock Exchange and several corporate headquarters are located. Drainage was engineered through the use of canals and tunnels starting in the 17th century. #2: Population Northwest of Mexico City itself is Ciudad Satélite, a vast middle-class to upper-middle-class residential and business area. In 2000, Andrés Manuel López Obrador was elected, and he resigned in 2005 to run in the 2006 presidential elections; Alejandro Encinas was designated by the Legislative Assembly to finish the term. Mexico City is Latin America's leading center for the television, music and film industries. Mexican pyramids are different from the Egyptian ones. Facts about Mexico City 1: General Information Mexico city founded on 13 March 1325 or about 698 years ago by Tenoch. As such, the PRD was not assigned any plurinominal seat to comply with the law that prevents over-representation. "come on, come on"), who ask drivers for a fee to park. 20.Â Mexico's National Autonomous University (UNAM) is one of the largest universities in the world, and the most important cultural project in Mexico. The new Museo Júmex in Nuevo Polanco was slated to open in November 2013. 17 Interesting Facts About Mérida, Mexico Located in the northwest part of Yucatan state, Merida is 35 kilometres (22 miles) off the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. 4.Â Mexico City has the largest number of museums in the Americas and the second largest number in the world, second only to London. They are formally called capitalinos (in reference to the city being the capital of the country), but "[p]erhaps because capitalino is the more polite, specific, and correct word, it is almost never utilized".. XEQ 9,  This traffic exceeds the capacity of the airport, which has historically centralized the majority of air traffic in the country. December 1520 – Siege, Starvation & Smallpox", "Conquistadors – Cortés. What's more, it has one of the highest economic growths in the world, and its economy is expected to double by 2020âplacing it in seventh place, right after Tokyo, New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Paris and London. XHTVM 40 and The Secretariat of Public Security of Mexico City (Secretaría de Seguridad Pública de la Ciudad de México – SSP) manages a combined force of over 90,000 officers in Mexico City. Mexico City is the first Latin American city to host the Olympic Games, having held the Summer Olympics in 1968, winning bids against Buenos Aires, Lyon and Detroit. Popular arts in the form of cartoons and illustrations flourished, e.g.  This caused serious air pollution in Mexico City and water pollution problems, as well as subsidence due to overextraction of groundwater. Texcoco de Mora and then Toluca became the capital of the State of Mexico.. In the 2006 elections, the PRD got the absolute majority in the direct uninominal elections, securing 34 of the 40 FPP seats. It is also the most populous city and an important financial center in North America. In 2005, Mexico City became the first city to host an NFL regular season game outside of the United States, at the Azteca Stadium. GVWR", "Programa de Verificación Vehicular. One of the best examples of this is the Monument to the Mexican Revolution.  Mexico’s flag is made up three vertical stripes.  Lake Texcoco was drained starting from the 17th century. 20 Facts You Never Imagined of Mexico City 1. Mexico City (Spanish: Ciudad de México; abbreviated CDMX) is the capital and largest city of Mexico.It is also one of the most populous and polluted cities in the world. The Battle of Guanajuato, the first major engagement of the insurgency, occurred four days later. When the air pollution was very high, there were 35,000 million people hospitalized and 1,000 died every year in the city? Landmarks in the Historic Center include the Plaza de la Constitución (Zócalo), the main central square with its epoch-contrasting Spanish-era Metropolitan Cathedral and National Palace, ancient Aztec temple ruins Templo Mayor ("Major Temple") and modern structures, all within a few steps of one another. By the 1990s Mexico City had become infamous as one of the world's most polluted cities; however, the city has become a model for drastically lowering pollution levels. The weak winds of these systems do not allow for the dispersion, outside the basin, of the air pollutants which are produced by the 50,000 industries and 4 million vehicles operating in and around the metropolitan area. Peseros are typically half-length passenger buses (known as microbús) that sit 22 passengers and stand up to 28. 384,326), 9. 27. 620,416) From the earliest settlement to the present day, the site of Mexico City has been an impressive one. It has a sprawling public transport system. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were finally given the right to elect both a head of government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997. Mexico City earthquake of 1985 Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Total Population: 130,759,074 people. There is an environmental program, called Hoy No Circula ("Today Does Not Run", or "One Day without a Car"), whereby vehicles that have not passed emissions testing are restricted from circulating on certain days according to the ending digit of their license plates; this in an attempt to cut down on pollution and traffic congestion. Greater Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in Mexico and the area with the highest population density. of 150m+ completed buildings: First 150m+ Building: Torre … Even though proportionality is supposed to prevent a party from being overrepresented, several restrictions apply in the assignation of the seats. It also regularly hosts small but important temporary exhibits of classical and modern art (e.g. Much of the early colonial art stemmed from the codices (Aztec illustrated books), aiming to recover and preserve some Aztec and other Amerindian iconography and history. The Legislative Assembly expanded provisions on abortions, becoming the first federal entity to expand abortion in Mexico beyond cases of rape and economic reasons, to permit it at the choice of the mother before the 12th week of pregnancy. In addition, some inner suburbs are losing population to outer suburbs, indicating the continuing expansion of Greater Mexico City. Mexico City is the densely populated, high-altitude, and capital city of Mexico. Palacio Nacional and the National Institute of Cardiology) have murals painted by Diego Rivera. Chapultepec Zoo, the San Juan de Aragon Zoo and Los Coyotes Zoo. Nevertheless, discontent and protests began in the 1960s leading to the massacre of an unknown number of protesting students in Tlatelolco.. Mexico City was traditionally known as La Ciudad de los Palacios ("the City of the Palaces"), a nickname attributed to Baron Alexander von Humboldt when visiting the city in the 19th century, who, sending a letter back to Europe, said Mexico City could rival any major city in Europe. Mexico City restaurants have pivoted to offer exciting takeaway and delivery services during the Coronavirus outbreak. The food and beverage industry remains a major employer while tourism brings millions of do… Bicycle-service users have access to several permanent Ciclovías (dedicated bike paths/lanes/streets), including ones along Paseo de la Reforma and Avenida Chapultepec as well as one running 59 kilometers (37 miles) from Polanco to Fierro del Toro, which is located south of Cumbres del Ajusco National Park, near the Morelos state line. , The 16th century saw a proliferation of churches, many of which can still be seen today in the historic center. Association football is the country's most popular and most televised franchised sport. "viene vienes" (lit.  Zoo San Juan de Aragon is near the San Juan de Aragon Park in the Gustavo A. Madero. Porfirio Díaz's regime sponsored arts, especially those that followed the French school. In 2017, NBA commissioner Adam Silver expressed interest in placing an NBA G League expansion team in Mexico City as early as 2018. He sees punishment "related to the growing politicisation of security and crime issues and the resulting criminalisation of the people living at the margins of urban society, in particular those who work in the city's informal economy. 25.Â In 2013, Mexico City won a Climate Leadership Award for public policies aimed at improving air quality, and it was included in the list of the 10 cities with the best sustainable development. Capital Facts for Mexico City, Mexico. The Metropolitan Cathedral still displays works by Juan de Rojas, Juan Correa and an oil painting whose authorship has been attributed to Murillo. It is so enormous that most visitors are amazed by its size when they fly into the city at night, witnessing the ocean of twinkling lights. Throughout its history, the Central Valley of Mexico was accustomed to having several snowfalls per decade (including a period between 1878 and 1895 in which every single year—except 1880—recorded snowfalls) mostly lake-effect snow. In 2012, elections were held for the post of head of government and the representatives of the Legislative Assembly. Claudia Sheinbaum is the major of the city and Marti Batres is one of the senators. East of the center are mostly lower-income areas with some middle-class neighborhoods such as Jardín Balbuena. Many of these palaces can still be seen today, leading to Mexico City's nickname of "The city of palaces" given by Alexander Von Humboldt. Nonetheless, the annual rate of growth of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City is much lower than that of other large urban agglomerations in Mexico, a phenomenon most likely attributable to the environmental policy of decentralization. The Centro Nacional de las Artes (National Center for the Arts has several venues for music, theatre, dance.  There are many smaller parks throughout the city.  Studies of her mitochondrial DNA suggest she was either of Asian origin, or Caucasian having an appearance like Western Europeans, or Australian.. Franciscan friar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia, one of the Twelve Apostles of Mexico who arrived in New Spain in 1524, described the rebuilding of the city as one of the afflictions or plagues of the early period: The seventh plague was the construction of the great City of Mexico, which, during the early years used more people than in the construction of Jerusalem. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, List of pre-columbian archaeological sites in Mexico City, subsidence due to overextraction of groundwater, massacre of an unknown number of protesting students, Palace of the Inquisition (now Museum of Mexican Medicine), Lic. The area of capital lies on 1,483 Km 2. June 1520 – Massacre at Tenochtitlán", "Conquistadors – Cortés. It was also the objective of one of the two French invasions to Mexico (1861–1867), and occupied for a year by American troops in the framework of the Mexican–American War (1847–1848). From 1941 to 1970, the Federal District comprised twelve delegaciones and Mexico City. The José Vasconcelos Library, a national library, is located on the grounds of the former Buenavista railroad station in the northern part of the city. As the depth of the lake water fluctuated, Mexico City was subject to periodic flooding. This armada of taxis serves the population of 9,000,000. The city's main source of fresh produce is the Central de Abasto. Mexico City, as a whole, is a single constituency for the parallel election of 26 representatives, elected by proportional representation, with open-party lists, locally called "plurinominal deputies". Mexico City is divided into 40 electoral constituencies of similar population which elect one representative by the plurality voting system, locally called "uninominal deputies". One of the students, José María Velasco, is considered one of the greatest Mexican landscape painters of the 19th century. Both races were removed from their series' schedules for 2009. The wet humid summer runs from May to October when winds bring in tropical moisture from the sea, the wettest month being July. Members are obligated to publicly disclose their works through conferences and public events such as concerts and recitals. A late seventeenth-century painting of the Zócalo by Cristóbal de Villalpando depicts the main square, which had been the old Aztec ceremonial center. This season is subdivided into a cold winter period and a warm spring period. Mexico is the 11th most populated country in the world. Its construction began during the presidency of Porfirio Díaz and ended in 1934, after being interrupted by the Mexican Revolution in the 1920s. 415,007). In place of the municipalities, the Federal District was divided into one "Central Department" and 13 delegaciones (boroughs) administered directly by the government of the Federal District. The Devils play their home games at Estadio Alfredo Harp Helú designed by international Mexican-American architect FGP Atelier Founder Francisco Gonzalez Pulido in collaboration with local architect Taller ADG. The Cineteca Nacional (the Mexican Film Library), near the Coyoacán suburb, shows a variety of films, and stages many film festivals, including the annual International Showcase, and many smaller ones ranging from Scandinavian and Uruguayan cinema, to Jewish and LGBT-themed films. Other iconic city parks include the Alameda Central historic center, a city park since colonial times and renovated in 2013; Parque México and Parque España in the hip Condesa district; Parque Hundido and Parque de los Venados in Colonia del Valle, and Parque Lincoln in Polanco. The granting of the license for all zones exclusively to a new company without experience in operating parking meters, Operadora de Estacionamientos Bicentenario, has generated controversy.. 300m+ Buildings: None • 1 Under Constr. 2.  Leading magazines include Expansión, Proceso, Poder, as well as dozens of entertainment publications such as Vanidades, Quién, Chilango, TV Notas, and local editions of Vogue, GQ, and Architectural Digest. Ring roads are the Circuito Interior (inner ring), Anillo Periférico; the Circuito Exterior Mexiquense ("State of Mexico outer loop") toll road skirting the northeastern and eastern edges of the metropolitan area, the Chamapa-La Venta toll road skirting the northwestern edge, and the Arco Norte completely bypassing the metropolitan area in an arc from northwest (Atlacomulco) to north (Tula, Hidalgo) to east (Puebla). However, the census had the particularity that, unlike racial/ethnic census in other countries, it was focused in the perception of cultural heritage rather than in a racial perception, leading to a good number of white people to identify with "Mixed heritage" due to cultural influence. 414,711) Founded in 1325, its original name was Tenochtitlan (in the Nahuatl language), and it served as the capital of the Aztec Empire, which had a population of roughly 300,000âlarger than any European city at that time. Since the city of Mexico is built on a lake, it is sinks about 6 to 8 inches every year. Three Nobel laureates, several Mexican entrepreneurs and most of Mexico's modern-day presidents are among its former students. Mexico City has a number of IMAX theatres, providing residents and visitors access to films ranging from documentaries to blockbusters on these large screens. Mexico City is known for its Templo Mayor – a 13th-century Aztec temple, the baroque Catedral Metropolitana de México of the Spanish conquistadors, and the Palacio Nacional, which houses historic murals by Diego Rivera. Tallest Building: Torre Reforma (246 m) Global Ranking #48 in the world by no. Miguel Hidalgo (pop.  Before this designation, Mexico City had served as the seat of government for both the State of Mexico and the nation as a whole. With no housing available, they took over lands surrounding the city, creating huge shantytowns that extended for many miles. Northwest of the city is a large ecological reserve, the Bosque de Aragón. By draining the area, the mosquito population dropped as did the frequency of the diseases they spread. Mexican Food These include the National Institutes of Cardiology, Nutrition, Psychiatry, Oncology, Pediatrics, Rehabilitation, among others. Mexico City sinks 10 inches each year. The city (Federal District) The Mexico City region accounts for nearly one-fourth of the gross domestic product of Mexico. In 2016, the airport handled almost 42 million passengers, about 3.3 million more than the year before. Although this earthquake was not as deadly or destructive as many similar events in Asia and other parts of Latin America, it proved to be a disaster politically for the one-party government. Having been capital of a vast pre-Hispanic empire, and also the capital of richest viceroyalty within the Spanish Empire (ruling over a vast territory in the Americas and Spanish West Indies), and, finally, the capital of the United Mexican States, Mexico City has a rich history of artistic expression. The wholesale market supplies most of the city's "mercados", supermarkets and restaurants, as well as people who come to buy the produce for themselves. The city has 16 subdivisions, formerly known as boroughs. However the regime concentrated resources and wealth into the city while the rest of the country languished in poverty.  It has more than 301 specimens of 51 species of wild native or endemic fauna from the area, featuring eagles, ajolotes, coyotes, macaws, bobcats, Mexican wolves, raccoons, mountain lions, teporingos, foxes, white-tailed deer.. XHTV 4, At the other end of the scale are working class pulque bars known as pulquerías, a challenge for tourists to locate and experience. Its subway system is the largest one in Latin America, with 12 lines along 226 kilometers (140 miles) in 195 stations. While in 2003, the program still restricted 40% of vehicles in the metropolitan area, with the adoption of stricter emissions standards in 2001 and 2006, in practice, these days most vehicles are exempt from the circulation restrictions as long as they pass regular emissions tests. Mexico City. The evidence consists of a burial in the first case, and of, Magnus Mörner and Charles Gibson, "Diego Muñoz Camargo and the Segregation Policy of the Spanish Crown,". The sprawling main campus of the university, known as Ciudad Universitaria, was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2007. Since 2013, to refer to the City particularly in relation to government campaigns, the abbreviation CDMX has been used (from Ciudad de México), prior to this but recently, the abbreviation was "the DF" (from Distrito Federal de México). 5. The average annual temperature varies from 12 to 16 °C (54 to 61 °F), depending on the altitude of the borough. This location would then be appropriated as federal land, with the federal government acting as the local authority. In contrast, the boroughs of Xochimilco (172nd), Tláhuac (177th), and Iztapalapa (183rd) presented the lowest HDI values of Mexico City, with values of 0.8481, 0.8473, and 0.8464, respectively, which are still in the global high-HDI range. There are at least eight important archaeological sites in Mexico City: Cuicuilco, Santa Cruz Acalpixca, the Templo Mayor, Tlatelolco, Santa Cecilia, Tenayuca, Teotihuacan and Acozaco.@louawatson. Spaniards encountered a society in which the concept of nobility mirrored that of their own. The American invasion into the Federal District was first resisted during the Battle of Churubusco on 8 August, where the Saint Patrick's Battalion, which was composed primarily of Catholic Irish and German immigrants but also Canadians, English, French, Italians, Poles, Scots, Spaniards, Swiss, and Mexicans, fought for the Mexican cause, repelling the American attacks. It is a diverse and vast city built on a lake. The Mexican forces fell back from Chapultepec and retreated within the city. , Although the Spanish preserved Tenochtitlan's basic layout, they built Catholic churches over the old Aztec temples and claimed the imperial palaces for themselves. It is 46,800 square meters long. The city hosted the 1955 and 1975 Pan American Games, the last after Santiago and São Paulo withdrew. An estimated 1.2 billion Roman Catholics live in the world. The Mexican capital is the largest Spanish-speaking city on Earth. Highest Mountain: Pico de Orizaba – 5 636 meters above the sea Mexico City is served by Mexico City International Airport (IATA Airport Code: MEX).  According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the second largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere (behind São Paulo, Brazil), the eleventh-largest agglomeration (2017), and the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. [ 186 ] there are numerous venues for smaller musical ensembles and solo.... The right to choose where the Federal District ) the Mexico City was the even! Square, which makes it the fourth most populous City and begin full! Proportionality is supposed to prevent flooding painting of the Legislative assembly daily newspapers are published, including El,! Scientific research and has presence all across the country languished in poverty of article 50 gave the Congress! Highest taxi population in the centre of the country 's most iconic Park! 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